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    THE CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC MARINE LIVING RESOURCES (CCAMLR) AND THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACH As published in the International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2008

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    Lack of adequate governance of the high seas areas has resulted in the continued degradation of ocean and marine habitats. Ȁ e ecosystem approach, which comprises integrated, precautionary management policies, can be an important tool to reverse this situation. CCAMLR was a pioneer in the incorporation of an ecosystem approach to the conservation and management of marine living resources, and continues to be a leader in its implementation. Ȁ rough its actions at scientific, institutional and compliance levels, it has attempted to balance conservation objectives with the maintenance of commercial fisheries. CCAMLR has many achievements in this regard, but needs to face new challenges posed by the expansion of fisheries, including illegal, unre-ported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, if it is not to abandon the core conservation principles embodied in the Antarctic Treaty. Other regional fishery bodies that have committed themselves to incorporating the ecosystem approach in their regimes can learn important lessons from CCAMLR’s successes and also from its difficulties. Incorporating the ecosystem approach is an ambitious goal, but one that can contribute significantly to ocean governance.