The estimated breeding population of wandering albatrosses on Macquarie Island increased from 17 in 1956 to a maximum of 97 in 1966, and then declined at an average rate of 8.1% per year. Mark-recapture analysis shows that the population is not closed (i.e., subject to immigration and emigration). The decline is correlated with the onset of large-scale fishing for tuna in the southern hemisphere using longlines. The effect of longline mortality on the population dynamics of the wandering albatross is estimated. An annual number of longline hooks in the southern hemisphere tuna fishery of 41.6 million is calculated as the ceiling below which the population would begin to recover.