In the Southern Ocean fisheries are increasingly being exploited while the effects of fishing are becoming obscured more and more by climate factors that in themselves are changing marine populations and communities, thus confounding management. It is timely for CCAMLR to develop a network of MPAs, with initial inclusion of the well-researched Ross Sea, the area of the Southern Ocean having relatively little human interference so far. Under present climate change scenarios, it could be among the last stretches of the world’s oceans where sea ice remains an important part of the system. The Ross Sea, therefore, represents a refuge both for science, historical value, and a diverse, sea-ice associated biotic community inhabiting neritic waters.
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