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    The use of Port State measures to improve fisheries compliance at the international levelIssues and instruments – the CCAMLR case

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    There is increasing international support for regionally and globally coordinated approaches to port State control in order to avoid the development of “ports of convenience” and improve fisheries compliance. Possible approaches include the development of regional Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), which would be based on minimum standards. The more ambitious goal to promote legally binding, universally applicable instruments is also gaining momentum. In any case, there is a pressing need to develop harmonized mandatory port State regimes setting down clear and detailed rules that enable port authorities and other interested parties to cooperate effectively against Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. CCAMLR is generally regarded as a good regional model in the area of port State control. Hence, CCAMLR Members should draw on their experience in port State measures, particularly on toothfish landings, to encourage the application of similar approaches in those Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) to which they are Parties. In addition, notwithstanding CCAMLR progress in port State control, toothfish caught in IUU fishing operations continue to reach international ports and markets. Port State-related measures need to be expanded and strengthened in order to increase pressure on IUU fishers and traders.