This paper is submitted for background information. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are an important tool for biodiversity protection and marine conservation programmes globally. Although most MPAs have been established relatively recently compared to protected areas on land, there is considerable expertise on their identification, establishment, and management. A global review of MPA management techniques, including case studies from the Antarctic and elsewhere, was undertaken in 2010 and highlighted the variety of possible ways to help achieve the objectives of MPAs. The main tools which are relevant to managing MPAs in the area covered by the Antarctic Treaty and by CCAMLR are described in this “toolbox”. Some of these management techniques have been adapted from terrestrial situations while others are novel and are unique to the marine environment. The tools are presented as a range of approaches and options which could be considered, either individually or in combination, depending on what is most likely to help achieve the objectives of specific MPAs or MPA networks or systems.
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