During April 2011, a multi-national group of scientists with expertise on Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and environmental sciences attended a workshop aiming to evaluate new knowledge on the impact of climate change and increasing fisheries on Antarctic krill and Antarctic ecosystems, and possible repercussions for resource management. The workshop was organised by the Institute of Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES) in the Netherlands, and funded by the European Commission and the Dutch government. The scientific evaluation focused on major agents of climate change, such as ocean warming, sea ice loss, and ocean acidification. It was concluded that the cumulative impact of climate change on krill is probably negative. To be able to account for climate change-induced ramifications on Antarctic krill and ecosystems, the adaptive capacity of the fisheries management of CCAMLR must be enhanced. To achieve this, critical knowledge gaps in the biology and ecology of Antarctic krill need to be closed. Research needs to be intensified on recruitment processes in Antarctic krill, under-ice and benthic habitat use, their capacity to adapt to environmental change, their ecosystem function, as well as the energy demand and food consumption of krill-dependent predators. With respect to CCAMLR’s ecosystem-based management approach, several recommendations were agreed on during the workshop. In particular, it was concluded that current precautionary management measures need to be maintained, until sufficient knowledge exists about the population levels of sustainability. It was further agreed that increasing the efficiency of CEMP is fundamental for a solid science-based management of the fishery.