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    Population variability of biological parameters of penguins along the Antarctic Peninsula

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    Document Number:
    A. Barbosa
    Submitted By:
    Dr Andrés Barbosa (Spain)
    Approved By:
    Mr Roberto Sarralde Vizuete (Spain)

    A collection of published papers about population variability of several biological parameters and factors affecting penguins biology along the Antarctic Peninsula is presented in order to contribute to the general knowledge of penguin biological variation, to generate a data baseline in the context of environmental changes such as climate change and human activity and to support the proposal of the Western Antarctic Peninsula protected marine area. The results show higher levels of immunological parameters, higher abundance of ectoparasites and a higher stress in northern populations. Contaminant levels and genotoxic damage are associated with human activity mostly located in the northern populations as well.